In life, circumstances can arise that may impact our ability to make sound decisions and manage our affairs. When faced with these challenges, it’s crucial to understand the concept of legal incompetence or incapacity.
As estate planning attorneys at Hermance Law, we are here to help you understand and navigate the complexities of this topic. Let’s explore what legal incompetence means, how it is determined in California, the process of seeking a declaration of incompetence, and the importance of planning for incapacity.
What Is Legal Incompetence or Incapacity?
Legal incompetence or incapacity is when an individual lacks the mental capacity to understand and make informed decisions regarding their personal and financial affairs. It can result from various factors, including cognitive decline, mental illness, or physical impairment. When someone is declared legally incompetent, it means they are unable to handle their affairs and make legally binding decisions.
Determining Legal Incompetence or Incapacity in California
In California, the law defines incapacity as the inability to make decisions or perform certain actions due to impaired mental functions. These impaired mental functions can result in various difficulties, such as:
- Inability to understand or communicate effectively with others.
- Problems recognizing familiar people and objects.
- Failure to reason logically.
- Presence of delusions and/or hallucinations.
- Inability to control mood, leading to inappropriate actions considering the circumstances.
- Failure to comprehend and appreciate the consequences of their actions.
Determining incapacity can sometimes be straightforward. For instance, if a person is unconscious or in a coma, they are unable to handle their financial matters or make decisions about their medical care (unless they have an advance health care directive in place). However, there are instances where establishing incapacity is more challenging.
In California, the determination of legal incompetence or incapacity is typically made through a legal process. The court takes into account evidence of impaired judgment, cognitive decline, or other indicators of incapacity. This requires medical and/or psychological evaluations from professionals. The court considers this evidence, including input from family members and other relevant individuals.
It is important to note that being declared legally incompetent does not strip away all rights and autonomy; the court seeks to protect the individual’s best interests while allowing for appropriate decision-making support.
Who Determines Incapacity?
The determination of incapacity is ultimately made by the court. However, it is typically initiated by concerned family members, friends, or other interested parties who petition the court for a declaration of incompetence. The court evaluates the evidence presented and decides whether the individual meets the legal criteria for incapacity.
The Process of Seeking Declaration of Incompetence
The process of seeking a declaration of incompetence involves several steps. It begins with filing a guardianship petition with the court, providing evidence and documentation to support the claim of incapacity. The court may appoint a guardian ad litem to represent the interests of the allegedly incompetent individual.
The appointed guardian ad litem assumes the responsibility of making important decisions on behalf of the incapacitated person. These decisions are intended to protect the rights of the individual involved. It’s important to note that there are no specific guidelines regarding who can be appointed as a guardian ad litem. The trial court has the authority to select an individual deemed appropriate to act in the best interests of the incapacitated party.
After the petition is filed, the court proceeds by assigning a court investigator to the case. In certain situations, an attorney may also be appointed to represent the individual during the hearing. The elderly person and their relatives are informed about the petition as part of the process. Once all parties are ready, a hearing is scheduled.
During the hearing, the judge carefully examines the petition, considers the presented evidence, and listens to statements from both sides. Ultimately, it is the court’s responsibility to determine whether the elderly person is capable of self-care or not. Based on the findings, the court then decides whether to grant the guardianship petition.
Planning for Incapacity
The best way to prepare for potential incapacity is through proactive estate planning. By establishing certain legal instruments, you can ensure that your wishes are respected and your affairs are handled according to your preferences. Some options for estate planning tools include:
- Power of Attorney: A power of attorney allows you to appoint someone you trust to make financial and legal decisions on your behalf if you become incapacitated.
- Healthcare Directive: A healthcare directive, also known as a living will, enables you to specify your medical preferences and designate a healthcare proxy to make decisions on your behalf.
- Revocable Living Trust: A revocable living trust allows you to transfer ownership of your assets to a trust, ensuring seamless management and distribution in the event of incapacity.
Taking these steps in advance can provide peace of mind and alleviate potential burdens on your loved ones during challenging times.
At Hermance Law, we understand the complexities and sensitivities surrounding legal incompetence and incapacity. Our experienced team of estate planning and crisis planning attorneys is here to provide compassionate guidance and comprehensive solutions. We can help you navigate the legal processes involved and assist in developing a robust estate plan that safeguards your interests and ensures your wishes are upheld.
Do not delay in taking action to protect your future. Contact us today to schedule a FREE and friendly consultation. Let us assist you in planning for incapacity and gaining peace of mind. We are dedicated to providing you with the support and expertise you need to face life’s challenges confidently.